9. Successful Oral Presentation


9.  Successful Oral Presentation/Communication
Question No.9: Define oral presentation and explain the stages for the preparation of effective oral presentation. OR  What are the kinds of oral presentation? Also explain strategies for effective verbal or non-verbal presentation/speech/delivery. OR What are the ways of delivering the oral message?
Answer:                            Oral Communication/Presentation
            Non-written communication is called oral communication. In this medium, we use shorter words and shorter sentences. It brings prompt feedback. The sentence structures of oral communication are simple. Speaking, reading, interviewing and delivering lectures, etc are its forms.
                        Inside the organization
            Inside the organization, oral presentation takes the following forms.
        Staff meeting, reports, face to face discussions, audio tapes and telephone chats etc.
                        Outside the organization
            Outside the organization, oral presentation takes the following forms.
            Face to face discussions, telephone or presentations etc.
Types of Oral Presentation
Oral presentation can be classified into two groups.
1.      Short Talks                           
2.      Long Speeches
1. Short Talks: in short talks, a businessman has to make contact to a small or big gathering for a short time. The time period to deliver the speech is very short. The purpose of such an address may be to welcome the visitors, to make a concluding speech at the end of some function or to present a brief summary of some new programme that is being launched.
2. Long Speeches: Long speeches may range from fifteen minutes to one or two hours. The purpose of these speeches is to present the annual business reports, annual budget, the progress of the firm during the year and new strategies for the promotion of the firms.
Stages or steps for preparing effective Oral Presentation
The following seven steps are essential for successful oral presentation.
·        1. Determine the purpose:
The first necessary step for effective oral presentation is to determine the purpose of the talk/ report. Knowing the purpose will help you to say what you want to say and how to say. According to purpose, the presentation has the following goals.
b.      To Inform:  Just like a teacher, our goal is to clarify and explain a process.
c.      To Persuade: Here our goal is to convince our listeners.
d.      Entertaining: Here our purpose is to provide something full of interest and enjoyment. Social gatherings, wedding parties and anniversaries are characteristics of this kind of speaking.
·        2. Assess the Audience:
Second requirement for oral presentation is to assess the audience. We must have some idea about the people in the audience. We must be clear about the size of the group, age range, their interests and goals etc. However, less information is available when we have to speak to outside groups. 
·        3. Main Idea:
We should select the main theme of our message and note it down. Then, we can add information in support of our theme. The choice of the idea depends upon the nature and purpose of the message.
·        4. Research:  
We may not have all information relating to our central theme. So, it is very necessary for us to gather facts, data and information so that we may be able to find new and better ideas. We may include some events related to our theme. Similarly, we may include something humorous for the interest of the readers.
·        5. Organization:
            After gathering the information, then we are to organize and write down our data in the form of draft. All the points should be in logical order. A good speech has three parts.
a. An Introduction: To attract the attention of the reader, introduction should be solid.
b. The Body: The body is the heart of the message. In this part of the speech, we explain and support the main purpose of our presentation.
c. Summary: In the end, the summary of your presentation should be given because it helps the audience to cover the main ideas of the talk. It also helps the audience to cover any point which he could not understand during the presentation.
·        6. Visual Aids: Visual aids are a great source of effective oral presentation. They make the work of a speaker easy and help him to achieve his goals. These visual aids make presentation interesting and comprehensible. Visual aids include charts, graphs, tables and photographs etc.
·        7. The Rehearse: After preparing talk/report, we should make a rehearsal of it. It would give us confidence. It would also make us perfect and help to avoid errors. But, keep one thing in mind. Imagine that the audience is in front of us when we rehearse. 
Types of Oral Presentation
Following are the different ways of delivering oral presentation.
·        1. Extemporaneous: This method of delivery is very significant and needs careful planning. In it, the speaker uses notes of his remarks. He may use 3 by 5 inches cards or a full sheet of paper as notes. It allows more eye contact with the audience.
·         2. Reading: Some speakers prefer reading because they do not want to make mistake. But, in reading you must have great practice so that you may be able to have eye contact with your audience otherwise your speech will leave a bad impression on the audience and they will become boring.
·        3. Memorization: If you are going to deliver a very short speech, you must memorize your speech. But, if your speech is lengthy, only the first few words or statements should be memorized and the remaining part of your speech should be read from the pages.
·        4. Impromptu: It refers to a speech off hand. Sometimes, at the eleventh hour you are asked to deliver a speech on some particular topic. You should not beat about the bush. It is one place where greatest leaders fail. Only a tactful orator can tackle such situation. 
·        Stages for Effective Oral Presentation
·        Speaking in a public meeting is an art. A speaker is to organize and deliver his ideas in an attractive way. He can win the attention of his audience only when he has prepared his speech well, and can deliver his speech nicely. Besides it, so many things can impress his audience i.e., his voice, his dress and his body gestures. There are two types of strategies which are required to make oral presentation a great success.
·        A.Physical Requirements
·        B.Oral Requirements
·        A. Physical Requirements
·        For a successful oral presentation, following are the physical requirements.
·        1. Physical Appearance: Physical appearance plays a great role in the success of oral presentation. A well dressed speaker with a popular hair style can make his speech a great success because his personality makes him attractive.
·        2. Posture: The posture of a person reflects the inner condition of a speaker. It shows how much confident the speaker is.
·        3. Eye Contact: Eye contact with the audience is of great importance. If the speaker is delivering a long speech and he has to read from the page, he will be an utter failure there because he is unable to make eye contact with the audience.
·        4. Voice: The role of voice for the success of speech can not be overlooked. The pitch of the voice should be under control. He should not use his voice at the same pitch. He should lower and heighten his pitch according to the need of his speech.
·        5. Facial Expressions: The facial expressions of a speaker have a great significance for the success of oral presentation. He may impress his audience with a smile on his face. He must laugh when there is some point of laughter. He must bring wrinkles on his face when there is some point of anxiety. He can make his audience understand with the movement of his hands.
·        B. Oral Requirements
·        1. Rate of Voice: A good speaker possesses a good voice. He should use pauses in his speech because during the pauses the audience finds enough time to digest his words. He should be moderate while delivering his speech. He should neither be quick nor too slow.
·        2. Volume: The volume of a speaker’s voice must be under his control. It should be neither loud nor low. A low volume fails to impress the audience. Similarly, a loud volume too produces jarring noise for them. It falls heavily on their eardrum. That’s why, a good speaker must adapt the volume of his voice according to the size of the room and the number of audience.
·        3.  Vocal Quality: some speakers have husky, deep and throaty voice. Some have sharp voices. The quality of voice must be good. It should neither be husky, deep and throaty nor sharp. 
·        4. Pronunciation: Wrongly pronounced words leave a bad impression on the minds of the listeners. Specially, in the field of business wrong pronunciation is not liked. That’s why, a good speaker should pronounce the words correctly.