PUNJAB UNIVERSITY PAPER A ANNUAL 2011 Group-1
Maximum Marks: 100 Time Allowed: 3:30 Hours
IMPORTANT NOTE: All parts of a question must be attempted together; otherwise you may not get any credit. Over-attempts will not be marked. All questions carry equal marks.
Q.1: Explain with reference to the context. (ANY THREE) (20)
a. A legacy of benefits may we In future years be found with those who try
To labour for the good until they die, And ask no other question than to know
That they have helped the cause to victory, That with their aid the flag is raised on high
REFERENCE: These lines have been taken from “Departure and Arrival” written by T.S. Eliot.
CONTEXT: In this poem, the poet throws light on the need for vision in life. He says that before we start our journey, we must plan for a final revival. Although our journey is full of hardships, yet we must have faith in better future. We must struggle to make this world a better place so that we may be able to have the feelings of pride in future.
EXPLANATION: In these lines, the poet says that we must leave a good legacy for the coming generations. The new generations will take the benefit of our struggle. The poet wishes to be bracketed with those people who work hard for welfare of others and die in a noble cause. Those, who want nothing, are not interested in hurly burly life. They only want to know that they have helped humanity to attain victory. They want to know that they have been able to raise the flag of human progress than before.
b. And ere should wane the morning star I’d don my robe and scimitar
REFERENCE: These lines have been taken from “Tartary”written by Walter De La Mare.
CONTEXT: In this poem, the poet wishes to be the sole ruler of an imaginary land, Tartary. He says that everything would be under his control. He would be the owner of all the things. He would live here with great pomp and show.
EXPLANATION: In these lines, the poet says that he would rise early in the morning and put on his royal dress set with pearls in a great quantity. He would also put on his royal sword. Then, he would go out for a walk in the forest. He would ride his carriage drawn by seven zebras through the shining paths of the forest. He would travel through open plains of his beautiful land before the day-light appears. All these things would cause pleasure and happiness in his life and he would enjoy his rule over Tartary. His enjoyment would be enviable.
c. But even so honoured still more
That he should seek my hospitality From out the dark door of the secret earth.
REFERENCE: These lines have been taken from “Snake” written by D.H. Lawrence.
CONTEXT: In this poem, the poet expresses the arrival of a snake who came to drink water at his water-container. He was impressed by his graceful way of drinking water. But, he was also afraid of him. His education and evil passions raised head in him. He threw a club at the snake and tried to hit him. But, the snake was safe. However, the poet felt sad. He thought that he should have treated the snake as a guest.
EXPLANATION: In these lines, the poet says that he was very happy at the arrival of the snake. He did not want to kill the snake. But, the voice of education forced him to kill if he was not afraid. But, the poet felt no hesitation in admitting the fact that he was afraid of the snake. But, the feelings of happiness at the arrival of the snake overpowered the feelings of fear. After all, he was his guest. He visited his house after emerging from the inner depths of the earth. He was thankful to snake for being his guest.
Q.2: Attempt any three of the following questions. Your answer should not exceed 150 words. (20)
a. What are Giovanni’s sentiments for Beatrice?
b. Write a note on the character of Lisby.
Answer: “The Little Willow” is a great love story of a silent but sincere and true love. We are impressed by the details of love story when we study the story minutely. The story actually revolves round three Avery sisters i.e. Charlotte, Brenda and Lisby. Lisby is the youngest sister. Unlike her elder sisters, she has genuine emotions of love and loves things because of their spiritual beauty. The willow tree has spiritual values too. She has bought the willow tree with her first term’s salary. Its apparent beauty does not impress her.
She loves Simon Byrne because he also appreciates spiritual beauty of things. That is why she thinks: “It almost seems as if he might be my kind of person.” When she feels that Simon Byrne is her ideal, she gives him the little willow tree to express her love. Simon also keeps her gift with him till his death. When she hears the news of Simon’s death, she begins to weep bitterly. However, she is satisfied that Simon acknowledges his love for her before his death. We can say that both Lisby and Simon stand for pure but silent love. (Words: 192)
c. “The Necklace” is a satire on the vanity of showy woman.
Answer: – “The Necklace” is a tragic story of a proud, vain and showy woman. The writer interprets tragedy in a different way. To him, tragedy means denial of pleasure or a life of constant labour.
Matilda becomes happy with the idea of becoming a part of the ball but soon she is dejected because she has no jewellery and fine dress to attend that party. She buys a fine dress with the money given by her husband and borrows the necklace from her friend to attend the party. After attending the party, she discovers that she has lost the necklace. Both the husband and wife try to search it but fail. Now, Matilda’s tragedy starts. They buy a new necklace to replace the necklace and give it to her friend but she has to lead the life of a working woman. She loses her beauty and charm. After ten years, she again gets a chance to meet her friend from whom she borrows the necklace. Her tragedy becomes intense when she discovers that the necklace was only an imitation.
Both the husband and wife seem partly responsible for their misfortune. Matilda tries to find what is beyond her resources. Her husband must have advised her to be realistic. Secondly, after losing the necklace they should have talked to the owner of the necklace. Chance also plays a negative role in their case. (Words: 231)
d. “Araby” is a psychological explanation of boy’s emotional and mental condition.
Answer: – The story “Araby”is a criticism on modern civilization which has given birth to doubts and fears and caused disillusionment for the modern man. Actually, the writer points out the conflict between the world of reality and the world of dreams. When one has to face the worst reality of life, one’s dreams are shattered.
In the story, we come across a young boy of 14. He lives in the world of dreams. He falls in love with a girl. However, being coward, he is unable to express his love. He follows the girl when she goes to school. The image of the girl is always behind him wherever he goes. In the end, the thing that surprises the reader is that the girl herself talks to him, he does not have the courage to talk to her. The girl asks the boy to go to Araby and bring some gifts for her but he cannot buy anything for her because of two reasons. First, he does not visit the bazaar in time. Second, he cannot decide what to buy for her. Soon lights are out and darkness prevails everywhere. He returns home with his eyes burning with anger and anguish. He says; “Gazing up into the darkness, I saw myself as a creature driven and derived by vanity; and my eyes burned with anguish and horror.” He learns that every desire is not fulfilled. It also shows that the boy is emotionally suppressed child. He has no one to share his feelings. (Words: 253)
Q.3: Attempt any three of the following questions. Your answer should not exceed 150 words. (20)
a. “Sometimes I can scarcely believe that I have actually walked on the moon.” Elaborate. (Walking on the Moon)
Answer: The essay “Walking on the moon”gives a detailed description of Scott’s experience on the moon. He was one of the three astronauts. The three astronauts felt some sense of freedom there. They did not find water, wind or any tree there. They observed decrease in their weight. There was perfect silence. They felt themselves standing on an alien land. The rocks were of grey, black, white and green colours. The temperature was 150 degrees that was enough to cause one’s death.
Scotts says that their memory and love for their own planet earth had made them dejected. But with the passage of time, they became familiar with desolation of moon. They felt nostalgic feelings for moon after their return. He had never believed that he ever had visited the moon. However, they were proud of their conquest over moon. Such sights on the moon were not previously experienced on the earth by them as well as by any man. (Words: 159)
b. “Whistling” is a sound symbol which stands for life and movements of birds and of all living creature. Discuss. (Whistling of Birds)
Answer: D. H. Lawrence is an English poet, critic and a novelist. In this essay, he has expressed his love for nature. He presents a contrast between spring and winter.
He is of the opinion that spring is another name of life. It gives a new outlook to everything. The wind becomes warm. The sun shines brightly. All the birds begin whistling. It looks as if they had been welcoming the spring season. This whistling shows that spring has arrived with full force. Life rises once again. There is a great hustle and bustle. Spring becomes the cause of flowers blooming. Trees start blossoming and the birds start singing. Warm and soothing air blows from sea side. There is a strange activity in all walks of life. Everything looks cheerful and a pleasant atmosphere is observed everywhere. In short, there is a new heaven and a new earth. The writer has used the following images to show the joy and kind aspect of spring i.e. Gleams of sunshine, silvery sounds, threads of silver and the glimmering of new creation, etc. (Words: 179)
c. Describe the difficulties faced by the people at the time of independence. (Pakistan and the Modern World)
Answer: Pakistan got freedom from the clutches of slavery after making untiring efforts under the leadership of the Quaid-i-Azam. It came into being on 14thof August, 1947. At the time of partition, they started migrating to Pakistan but they had to face many heart-rending problems. They left their belongings and had some things of necessity with them. They were weaponless. The men, women and the children were kidnapped and ruthlessly killed by the Hindus and the Sikhs. Many women were raped. They settled in Pakistan after facing a lot of problems and sacrificing their dear ones. The problems were not over. After the establishment of Pakistan, they were to face many other problems. The nation had not even a capital, a flag or any administrative machinery. They had no official machinery. The army was in dispersed condition. There was no industry. The doctors, the engineers and the bankers were few in numbers. They could not handle the all the problems. However, the Pakistanis overcame all these problems by following the three main principles told by the Quaid-i-Azam i.e. unity, faith and discipline. They tried their level best to earn the real fruit of liberty. (Words: 194)
d. Write a note on the good manners of the bus conductor. (On Saying Please)
Answer: In this essay, the writer tells us that if bad manners are infectious, so also are good manners. Bad manners cause irritation in society. The writer tries to prove it with an example. A passenger enters the life and says to the life man ‘Top.’ The lift man gets angry at his attitude because the passenger does not use the word ‘Please.’ He throws the passenger out of the lift. The passenger is injured. Law comes into action against the lift man but this law cannot raise a question against the attitude of the passenger.
Good manners are also infectious. Our politeness and courtesy will leave an everlasting impression on the others. The writer gives the example of a bus conductor. One day, the writer was travelling in a bus. The bus conductor asked him about the ticket but the writer forgot to take his purse with him. However, the bus conductor did not show any anger and gave the ticket to the writer. Everyone was impressed by the kind behaviour of the bus conductor. It clearly shows that good manners as well as bad manners are infectious. (Words: 189)
e. Describe the origin of the word “Super.”
Q.4: Attempt any three of the following questions. Your answer should not exceed 150 words. (20)
a. According to the poetess, the losses cannot bring any disaster. Do you agree? (One Art)
Answer: This is a didactic poem because the poetess is giving us a very beautiful moral lesson. Actually, the poetess believes that God has given us so many things. He can snatch these things from us whenever He wants. When He snatches something from us, there is something better for us in future. “What cannot be cured must be endured.” The poetess wants to tell that so many things have the intention to be lost but their loss does not bring any disaster. She gives examples from her personal life experiences that she lost her beautiful houses, a continent and two rivers which were very dear to her but she did not feel any dejection after their loss. Now she is ready even to lose her lover whom she loves passionately. The idea of the poem is very clear. The poetess wants to inculcate in us the spirit of patience and resignation to face any loss. It is not an easy job but we can learn it if we have courage.
یہ ایک نصیحت آموز نظم ہے کیونکہ شاعرہ ہمیں ایک خوبصورت اخلاقی سبق دے رہی ہے۔ اصل میں وہ اس بات پر یقین رکھتی ہے کہ خدا نے ہمیں بہت ساری چیزیں عطا کی ہیں۔ وہ ہم سے جب چاہے یہ چیزیں واپس لے سکتا ہے۔ جب وہ ہم سے کوئی چیز واپس لیتا ہے تو مستقبل میں ہمارے لئے اس سے بہتر کچھ موجود ہوتا ہے۔ “جس چیز کا علاج نہ کیا جا سکے اسے ضرور برداشت کرو۔” شاعرہ کہتی ہے کہ بہت ساری چیزیں کھو جانے کاا رادہ رکھتی ہیں لیکن انکا کھو جانا کوئی تباہی لیکر نہیں آتا۔وہ اپنی ذاتی زندگی کے تجربات سے مثالیں دیتی ہے کہ اس نے خوبصورت گھر، ایک براعظم اور دو دریا جو اسے بہت عزیز تھے کھو دئے لیکن اسے انکے کھو جانے کیبعد افسوس نہ ہوا۔ حتٰی کہ اب وہ اپنے عاشق کو کھونے کیلئے بھی تیار ہے جسے وہ بہت جذباتی اندازمیں محبت کرتی ہے۔ نظم کا خیال بہت واضح ہے۔ شاعرہ ہم میں کسی بھی نقصان کا سامنا کرنے کیلئے صبر اور قناعت کا جذبہ پیدا کرنا چاہتی ہے۔یہ ایک آسان کام نہیں ہے لیکن اگر ہم میں حوصلہ ہے تو ہم اسے سیکھ سکتے ہیں۔
b. Explain the central idea of “The Solitary Reaper.”
Answer: Wordsworth is a priest and worshipper of nature. He considers nature a nurse, a teacher and a guide. He has strong belief in its healing power. He believes: “Nature never did betray the heart that loved her.” In the poem, he wants to show the effect of solitude on his mind. He tells that he saw a girl singing as well as doing her work in the fields. The poet was unable to understand her song because she was singing in her own local language. He tried to guess its meaning but could not. He also advised others not to disturb her. He believes that her voice was better than that of cuckoo and nightingale. When the poet started climbing the mountain, he was still feeling the strong and powerful effect of the song. He was unable to forget her voice and the atmosphere at that time. He wished to listen it again but it could not be heard again. However this song has become a permanent and everlasting source of pleasure and satisfaction for the poet.
c. “A Poison Tree” rightly describes the poet’s mental and emotional attitude towards his enemy. Elaborate.
Answer: Actually, this is a didactic poem with a deep moral lesson. The poet says that we are better able to share our feelings with our friends but it is difficult rather impossible to share our feelings with our enemies. The reason is lack of mutual understanding. The main theme of the poem is: “Friends can forgive and forget, but the enemies nourish grudges.” The poet says that once he was angry with his friend. He told his friend about his feelings of anger. Their anger came to an end but when he was angry with his enemy, he could not share his feelings with him. As a result, their enmity kept on increasing. It became a tree and bore an apple bright. His enemy was fascinated by its brightness. He entered the garden and tried to eat that apple but as it was poisonous, it caused his death on the spot. His death made the poet happy. We can say that the poet is clearly condemning the evil passions of anger, hatred, and malice because these passions damage human life.
اصل میں یہ نظم ایک گہرے اخلاقی سبق کیساتھ ایک نصیحت آموز نظم ہے۔ شاعر کہتا ہے کہ ہم اپنے دوستوں کیساتھ بہتر انداز میں اپنے احساسات بانٹنے کے قابل ہوتے ہیں لیکن اپنے دشمنوں کی ساتھ اپنے احساسات بانٹنا مشکل ہوتا ہے بلکہ ناممکن ہوتا ہے۔ اسکی وجہ باہمی سمجھ بوجھ کی کمی ہے۔ نظم کا اہم مقصد یہ ہے۔ ” دوست معاف کرسکتے ہیں اور بھلا سکتے ہیں لیکن دشمن بغض کو پروان چڑھاتے ہیں۔” شاعر کہتا ہے کہ ایک بار وہ اپنے دوست سے ناراض تھا۔ اس نے اپنے دوست کو اپنے غصے والے احساسات کا بتا دیا۔ انکی ناراضگی ختم ہو گئی لیکن جب وہ اپنے دشمن سے ناراض تھا وہ اسکے ساتھ اپنے احساسات نہ بانٹ سکا۔ نتیجہ کے طور پر انکی دشمنی بڑھتی گئی۔ یہ ایک درخت بن گئی اور اس پر ایک چمکدار سیب لگا۔ اسکا دشمن اسکی چمک سے مسحور ہوا۔ وہ باغ میں داخل ہوا اور اس سیب کو کھانے کی کوشش کی لیکن جیسا کہ یہ زہریلا تھا یہ موقع پر ہی کی موت کا باعث بنا۔ اسکی موت نے شاعر کو خوش کر دیا۔ ہم کہہ سکتے ہیں کہ شاعر واضح انداز میں غصہ، نفرت، اور کمینگی جیسے برے جذبات کی مذمت کر رہا ہے کیونکہ یہ جذبات انسانی زندگی کو نقصان پہنچاتے ہیں۔
d. What are Keats’s thoughts about his life and mortality? (When I Have Fears)
Answer: Keats is one of the greatest romantic poets in the history of English Literature. In this poem, he tells about his fears which he has in mind. He also wants to convey the idea that love, beauty and fame are nothing. The poet says that he wants to become a great poet but different fears and apprehensions are surrounding him. He fears that he may die soon. His mind is full of thoughts as granaries are full of corn. The starry sky and the clouds changing their shapes have great romantic themes. He thinks that they would provide him great themes of great romantic treatment. There may be the old myths of ancient Greeks or new myths suggested by his fertile brain. He is sure that he can interpret them on the pages but his early death would deprive him of doing so. He also addresses his beloved and says that she is a fairy creature. However, her beauty is short lived. He is dejected to think that his death will deprive him of having a look at the captivating beauty of his beloved. He feels that he is standing at the shore of this world and concludes that love and fame are nothing.
e. Explain the significance of the title of the poem, “Say This City Has Ten Million Souls.”
Q.5: Attempt any three of the following questions. Your answer should not exceed 150 words. (20)
a. Write a note on the first part of the novel. Summary of the whole novel will not be accepted.
b. Is it a novel or triumph of man or his defeat?
c. Discuss Santiago’s attitude towards the marlin.
Answer: The Marlin is one of the three major and important characters of the novel. Actually, it plays the tole of old man’s adversary. It symbolizes ideal life for the old man. Santiago is surprised to see its beauty and bulk. Ha says: “I love you and respect you very much but I shall kill you before the day ends.” Another thing that impresses the old man is marlin’s bravery. It shows great power of resistance and forces the old man to make a hard and strenuous effort to catch it. It keeps on swimming continuously and even does not change its course. On the other hand, after a struggle of two days and nights, the old man realizes that the fish is going to kill him. He feels tired but at last he succeeds in killing the fish. After killing the fish, he feels sad for the fish. He repents for killing the fish. He says, “Fish, I am sorry for having killed you.” But he consoles himself saying that he has killed the fish in self-defense. “I killed him in self-defense.”
In the end, we can say that Santiago is quite justified in killing the marlin because if he had not killed the marlin, it would not have been possible for the old man to restore his name as a great fisherman. (Words: 223)
d. Examine the attitude of other people towards Santiago before he set sail to catch a big fish.
Answer: Santiago, the hero of the novel was an old fisherman but master fisherman of his area despite the fact he had not complete fishing weapons. Unluckily, once he had been unable to catch any fish for eighty four days. During these eighty four days, he went on fishing but came to nothing. Manolin, a disciple of Santiago was also with him but for the first forty two days. His parents censured Santiago for being unlucky and called him ‘Salao.” They were disappointed with Santiago as Manolin’s trainer. They sent Manolin to another boat. However, it was not only Manolin’s parents, the other fishermen also did not lag behind and did not lose the opportunity of criticizing Santiago. Their attitude towards Santiago was discouraging. They jeered at his age and failure to catch a fish. Some of the fishermen went to the extent of saying that he should leave his profession and take rest because he was too old to catch any fish. But what a man Santiago was! He was a man of strong will-power and determination. He observed the optimistic view of life and believed in struggle. He bore this criticism patiently and decided to go on a longer voyage to try his luck in the deep waters so that he might remove the sign of “Salao.” (Words: 218)
جواب:ناول کا ہیرو سانتیاگوایک بوڑھا مگر ایک ماہر مچھیرا تھا اس حقیقت کے باوجود کہ اسکے پاس مچھلی پکڑنے کے پورے آلات بھی نہیں تھے۔بد قسمتی سے ایک بار وہ چوراسی دن تک مچھلی نہ پکڑ پایا۔ ان چوراسی دنوں کے دوران وہ مچھلیاں پکڑنے گیا لیکن اسکے ہاتھ کچھ نہ آیا۔ مینولن، سانتیاگو کا ایک شاگرد بھی اسکے ساتھ تھا لیکن پہلے چالیس دنوں میں۔ اسکے والدین نے بھی سانتیاگو کے بد قسمت ہونے پر تنقید کی اور اسکو “سلاو” کہا۔ وہ سانتیاگو سے مینولن کےاستاد کے طور پر بہت مایوس تھے۔انہوں نے مینولن کو دوسری کشتی پر بھیج دیا۔ تاہم یہ صرف مینولن کےوالدین ہی نہ تھے دوسرے مچھیرے بھی پیچھے نہ رہے اور سانتیاگو پر تنقید کرنے کا موقع نہ گنوایا۔ انکا سانتیاگو کی طرف رویہ بہت حوصلہ شکنی والا تھا۔ وہ اسکی عمر کا اور مچھلی پکڑنے میں ناکامی کا مذاق اڑاتے تھے ۔ کچھ مچھیرے تو کہنے میں اس حد تک چلے گئے کہ اسکو اسکا پیشہ چھوڑ دینا چاہئے اور آرام کرنا چاہئے کیونکہ وہ اتنا بوڑھا تھا کہ مچھلی نہیں پکڑ سکتا تھا۔ لیکن کیا آدمی تھا سانتیاگو! وہ ایک مظبوط قوت ارادی والا اور عزم والا آدمی تھا۔ وہ ذندگی کے امید سے بھر پور پہلو کا مشاہدہ کرتا تھا اور کوشش پر یقین رکھتا تھا۔ اس نے اس تنقید کو صبر سے برداشت کیا اور ایک لمبے بحری سفر پر گہرے پانی میں جا کر قسمت آزمانے کا فیصلہ کیا تا کہ وہ “سلاو” کے دھبے کا ختم کر سکے۔
e. Describe the relationship of Santiago and Manolin.
Answer: Manolin was the 2nd important character in the novel. He was very loving and caring. On the advice of his parents, he left his boat and went to another boat but did not stop meeting Santiago. They were very close to each other and had same thinking. That’s why, he still saw the old man daily and looked after his basic needs.
Manolin and the old man loved each other. They had a “Disciple-teacher”relationship but it was also “A father-son relationship.” The old man felt his absence when he was in trouble: “I wish I had the boy.” Manolin was a source of energy for the old man. The old man himself said, “The boy keeps me alive.”
Other fishermen and many other people including Manolin’s parents consider Santiago unlucky but Manolin had complete faith in the skill of the old man. When the old man told the boy “They beat me, Manolin. They truly beat me”, the boy replied with complete faith. “He did not beat you. No the fish.” When, the old man said, “No, I am not lucky”, Manolin replied “I shall bring the luck with me.”
Having made this survey, we can say that the relation between Santiago and Manolin was of “Guru”and “Chela”. Both were nothing without each other. Both were truly the representative of selfless relationship. (Words: 224)