3-THE NEW CONSTITUTION (By: Saadat Hassan Manto)
1. EXPECTATIONS AND DISILLUSIONMENT OF USTAD MANGU
Q. No. 1: What kind of change Ustad Mangu was expecting from the new Act 1935? Explain. OR What were Mangu’s feelings on 1st April? ORWhat was going to happen on 1st April 1935 in India? OR What was new constitution? What could it change if promulgated? OR How was Mangu disillusioned on 1st April? OR How did Ustad Mangu feel when his hopes and expectations were not fulfilled?
Answer: – “The New Constitution” refers to 1st April when India Act 1935 was to come into effect. The Indians were cock sure that after the promulgation of this act, they would witness a new era of justice, equality and prosperity.
To represent the Indians of that time, Saadat Hassan Manto created a great character of Ustad Mangu who was a poor Tonga driver. One day he gathered from the conversation of his two fares that there was going to be new act for the Indians on 1st April, 1935. Ustad Mangu was overjoyed to hear this news. He thought that everything would be changed after the promulgation of new act. They would be treated equally and given their basic rights to live. He also said to himself, “The New Constitution was going to be like boiling hot water which will destroy these bugs who suck the blood of the poor.” But he was disillusioned when on 1st April, 1935 when he came on the road with the feelings of having new constitution to enjoy liberty and equal rights. He was disappointed to see that the people were moving about as if nothing had happened. All his hopes and expectations remained unfulfilled. In fact, he had been befooled by his own desire. Ironically, it happened on 1st April which is known as April Fool. (Words: 222)
2. CHARACTER SKETCH OF USTAD MANGU
Q. No. 2: Why does Ustad Mangu hate the British Imperialism? ORDraw the character sketch of Ustad Mangu?
Answer: – Ustad Mangu was the central figure of the story. He was considered a wise man among his friends although he is illiterate. No doubt, he was illiterate but even then he had great knowledge of national and international politics. He had his own opinion about anything. For example he said, “It is no doubt the result of a holy man’s curse that the Hindus and the Muslims keep slashing each other up every other day.” He hated the British from the core of their hearts because they drank much and went to dancing girls’ bazaar. They went there to quench their sexual thirst. Mangu did not like that at all. He also hated them because they treated the local unjustly. They were deprived of all their rights. In his hatred against the British, he gave them different names. He called them “White Monkey”, “White Mice”, and “Leper”. Sometimes, he called them “Bastard.” He also began to nauseate when he came across some Gora soldier. He went to extent of saying: “Their red faces remind me of decaying carcasses.”
In short, Ustad Mangu was the torch-bearer of equal human rights to everybody. He was justified in his hatred against the British because they were cruel and unjust to the local. They treated the local as they were they slaves of their father. (Words: 221)
3. MANGU’S ENCOUNTER WITH THE GORA SOLDIER
Q. No.3: Why did Ustad Mangu quarrel with the Gora soldier? What was its result? OR Discuss Mangu’s scuffle with the Gora soldier. Is Mangu justified in beating the Gora soldier?
Answer: – On 1st of April Mangu was excited to see the changes which, according to him, the new constitution could bring but he was disappointed to see no change. He had a bee in his bonnet. When he was going to cantonment, he came across a Gora soldier. This Gora was the same man who had insulted Ustad Mangu last year. Mangu had also recognized him. Now Mangu wanted to pay off his old scores. The Gora soldier wanted to go to dancing girls’ bazaar. Mangu demanded fare more than it should have been. The Gora soldier got furious at this insolence. He started insulting Ustad Mangu and hit him with a stick. Mangu also was in need of a chance to take revenge. He raised the slogan of “Nara-e-Takbeer” and hit him on his chin. After that, he beat the Gora well but very soon a crowd had gathered around them because the Gora was shouting for help. Soon, two police men appeared and arrested Ustad Mangu. Mangu said, “Those days are gone, friends, when we were just good for nothing” but he was mercilessly told: “What rubbish are you talking? What new constitution? It’s the same old constitution, you fool.” Mangu was justified in beating the Gora soldier because the Gora soldiers treated local insultingly as if they were the slaves of their father. (Words: 225)
Q.No.4: In “The New Constitution” Ustad Mangu is at best a half-wit (Silly or stupid person). Elaborate.
Answer: Mangu in “The New Constitution” was the representative of all the Indians. Throughout the story, he was at best a half-wit. Throughout the story, we observe that he longed for the freedom from the British for they were very cruel to the Indians. They treated the local insultingly as if they were the slaves of their father. He was innocent and proved himself a fool because he believed in hearsay by the fares. He thought that they would get equal rights in all the fields of life but in the end he was disillusioned. On 1stof April, he came on the road with new zeal to enjoy the enforcement of New India Act, 1935 but there was nothing else but disappointment. Another incident which shows that Mangu was at best a half-bit was his row with a Gora soldier. He believed that now they were free and in this confusion, he beat the Gora soldier but was put behind the bars. (Words: 162)