MODERN ESSAYS (GC UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD, PU LAHORE, UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA, UNIVERSITY OF GUJRAT )
1-PAKISTAN AND THE MODERN WORLD
1. Rational of Pakistan OR Two Nation Theory OR The Differences Between the Muslims and the Hindus
Q. No. 1: What were the circumstances which led to the creation of Pakistan? OR What is “Two Nation Theory”? OR What arguments did Liaquat Ali Khan put forward which justify the birth of Pakistan? OR On what grounds the Muslims of India asked for a separate country? OR What were the religious and cultural differences between the Muslims and the Hindus that ultimately led to the creation of Pakistan? OR What is the rationale of Pakistan?
Answer: The essay “Pakistan and the Modern World” is actually a speech delivered by khan Liaquat Ali Khan at the University of Kansas City in America.
He said that the Hindus and the Muslims were the two largest communities but they were different religiously, economically, socially and politically. The Muslims were “Monotheists.” The Hindus were “Polytheists.” The Muslims had a full set of laws of legacy while the Hindus did not have such laws. The Muslims believed in the equality of all men and women but the Hindus believed in the caste system.
Secondly, the Muslims were in minority and the Hindus were in majority. It was impossible for the Muslims to live as a minority in India. Even if they had got freedom, it would have been futile and just a change of masters.
Thirdly, the Muslims were second largest community in the sub-continent. They could easily constitute a separate nation. In such circumstances, the Muslims made a struggle to get Pakistan under the leadership of the Quaid-e-Azam and succeeded in getting a separate country. (Words: 177)
2. The Role of America & Western Countries
Q. No. 2: What were Liaquat Ali Khan’s expectations from America and the western world? OR “What however is the role of Western World in this situation? It is to demonstrate that true democracy …….. .” Discuss. OR How can America contribute to the progress of Pakistan?
Answer: In his speech to the Americans, Liaquat Ali Khan expresses his expectations from America and the western world. He tells the Americans the basic fact that actually many Asian countries are underdeveloped. Democracy is in its initial stage in these countries. Among them, Pakistan is also a newly born and under developed country. It has also weak democracy. All these Asian countries are completely backward in the field of education, science and technology. They are faced with the problems of hunger, disease and poverty.
In such situation, it is the first and foremost duty of America and western countries to come forward to support these under developed countries. They should help them in their struggle against poverty, disease and ignorance. They should help them in the field of education, science and technology. They should share their knowledge, skill and experience with the backward nations. As Asia is a major part of the world. If these countries are made prosperous states, they can play their dynamic role in the maintenance of world peace. (Words: 172)
3. The Demands of Freedom/Liberty
Q. No. 3 “Liberty does not descend upon a people; a people must raise themselves to it. It is a fruit that must be earned before it can be enjoyed”. Discuss. OR What, according to Liaquat Ali Khan, are the demands that our freedom makes on us? OR “And no freedom has any real value for the common man or woman unless it also means freedom from want, from disease, freedom from ignorance. This is the main task which confronts us if we are to take our rightful place in the Modern World.” Liaquat Ali Khan said it in 1950. How true! Is it still the main task which confronts us today?
Answer: In his speech, Liaquat Ali Khan puts forward his views regarding the demands that our freedom makes on us. He says that our first duty is to ourselves. This idea creates delusion that there is some spirit of selfishness or self-projection in it. Actually, it is neither selfishness nor self-projection. Free people are to maintain their own freedom first. If these free people face failure in doing so, they will definitely disgrace the fair name of men and women all over the world.
Further, he rejects the old idea of liberty and puts forward a new concept of liberty. He says that freedom from foreign domination is an outdated idea. Freedom has no real value unless it means freedom from poverty, disease and ignorance. To get rid of all these problems, we shall have to make best efforts. This is the main task which confronts us. But unluckily even today we are still faced with these problems. It means we are not free people. To make Pakistan strong and invincible, we should maintain our freedom. (Words: 175)
4. Importance of Creation of Pakistan for Peace in the World
Q. No. 4: “The creation of Pakistan has by itself dissolved what would have been a perpetual danger zone in Asia.” Discuss. OR Why was establishment of Pakistan necessary? OR How was the creation of Pakistan important for the other Asian countries?
Answer: Liaquat Ali Khan justified the creation of Pakistan saying that the United India would have been a place of permanent conflicts without the creation of Pakistan. He discussed that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different nations. Their religious, economic and social outlooks were also different. The Muslims were “Monotheists.” The Hindus were “Polytheists.” The Muslims had a full set of laws of legacy. On the other hand, the Hindus did not have such laws. The Muslim believed in the equality of all men and women. But the Hindus believed in caste system.
Now if these two hostile nations had been forced to live together, there would have been endless riots in the country. Asia formed a major part of the world. It would have become a permanent zone of disturbance. Peaceful Asia meant peaceful world. In this way the creation of Pakistan removed this danger positively and brought peace and happiness to this part of Asia. It means that demand of Pakistan was reasonable and practicable. (Words: 168)
5. POINTS OF SIMILARITY BETWEEN PAKISTAN AND AMERICA
Q. No. 5: “An American statesman pointed out the other day the great similarity of the beginnings of Pakistan with the early days of America; of how America began mainly as an agricultural country just as Pakistan is today and of how both struggled successfully to free themselves of foreign rule”. What kind of similarity occurs between the beginnings of Pakistan and the early days of America as pointed out by Liaquat Ali khan?
Answer: Liaquat Ali Khan mentioned the points of similarities between the beginnings of Pakistan and America. These points of resemblance were following. First, both the countries had been under domination for a long time and in the end got freedom from the foreign domination. Second, both the countries started their journey as agricultural countries.
He further said that Pakistan had also to face same problems as America had faced soon after its independence. Pakistan was completely a poor state in the fields of commerce, trade and industry. Pakistan was also faced with the problems of maintenance of civil liberty and democracy and greater production. It also wanted to improve the living standard of every individual. It also wanted to remove hunger, poverty and disease. It also wanted to make progress in the fields of education, science and technology. America was on its way to the road of the progress and performing enviable achievements in all these fields and had asserted itself. Pakistan also wanted to follow the footsteps of the Americans and make great progress. (Words: 175)
6. The Problems of Pakistan after Independence
Q.No.6: What problems did Pakistan face after its independence?
Answer: On 14th of August, 1947 Pakistan got freedom from the clutches of slavery after making untiring efforts under the leadership of the Quaid-i-Azam. At the time of partition, the Pakistanis started migrating to Pakistan but they had to leave their belongings and had some things of necessity with them. The men, women and the children were kidnapped and ruthlessly killed by the Hindus and the Sikhs. Many women were raped. The Pakistanis settled in Pakistan after facing a lot of problems. After the establishment of Pakistan, the nation had not even a capital, a flag or any administrative or official machinery. The army was in dispersed condition. There was no industry. The doctors, the engineers and the bankers were few in numbers. However, the Pakistanis overcame all these problems by following the three main principles told by the Quaid-i-Azam i.e. unity, faith and discipline. They tried their level best to earn the real fruit of liberty. (Words: 156)