10. THE JEWEL OF THE WORLD (P.K.Hitti)
Questions & Answers (Based on Exercise)
Q.No.1: Give an account of the early career of Abd-al-Rehman-I, his dramatic escape and his adventure in Africa?
Answer: In 750, the Abbasid started ruthless killing of the Umayyad. Abd-al-Rehman-I escaped and reached North Africa. There, Syrian troops accepted him as their leader. Soon, he attacked and captured all of Spain.
Q.No.2: How did Abd-al-Rehman-I deal with the Governor appointed by the Abbasid Caliph to contest his rule?
Answer: Abd-al-Rehman- I murdered the Governor of Spain appointed by the Abbasid caliph. He cut his head, preserved it in salt and camphor and sent it as a gift to Abbasid caliph after two years.
Q.No.3: What did Abbasid caliph say on receiving the head of hid governor?
Answer:The Abbasid caliph was stunned on receiving the head of his governor. Having no control over his tongue, he immediately said:“Thanks be to Allah for having placed the sea between us and such a foe.”
Q.No.4: What did Abd-al-Rehman-I do to make himself strong and to beautify his capital? OR How did Abd-al-Rehman gather his army?
Answer:Abd-al-Rehman-I developed highly trained army of 40,000 or more Berbers. To beautify his capital, he made many parks. He also built an aqueduct for the supply of water. He assumed the title of Amir for himself.
Q.No.5: Give an account of the all round progress made by the Arabs under Abd-al-Rehman-III?
Answer: Under his reign, Cordova became one of the top three cultural centers of the world. It had one hundred and thirteen thousand homes. It had seventy libraries and numberless book shops. The raising of silk worms was also introduced.
Q.No.6: What did Al-Hakam do to promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom? OR Who was Al-Hakam?
Answer: Al-Hakam was a great scholar. He established 27 free schools in the capital. He raised the status of University of Cordova. He built a library in which he collected four million books. Almost everyone could read and write.
MORE IMPORTANT QUESTIONS (PAST PAPERS-BISE FSD)
Q.No.1: Write a brief note on the mosque of Cordova. (FB-2009)
Answer: The mosque of Cordova was founded in 788 by Abd-al-Rehman-I. His successors made many changes in it. However, it was converted into a Christian church in 1236.
Q.No.2: What change did Abd-al-Rehman-I bring about in Muslim Spain in 773? OR When and why did Abd-al-Rehman-I discontinue the Friday sermon?
Answer: In 773, Abd-al-Rehman-I discontinued the Friday Sermon because it was given in the name of Abbasid Caliph but he did not assume the Caliph’s title himself. He assumed the title of Amir for himself.
Q.No.3: What was the condition of Muslim Spain? (FB-2011)
Answer: The condition of Muslim Spain was enviable. Leather industry, the art of tanning, glasswork, brass work, inlaying steeland pottery flourished. Wool and silk were woven.
Q.No.4: How did Cordova deserve to be titled as the Jewel of the World? (Fb-2014)
Answer: Cordova was a cultured city. It had one hundred and thirteen thousand homes. It had 70 libraries and numberless book shops. That’s why, it was titled “The Jewel of the World.”
Q.No.5: How big was Al-Zahra and where was it situated?
Answer: It had 400 rooms and apartments. Thousands of slaves and guards lived there. They stood northwest of the town overlooking the Guadalquivir River.
Q.No.6: How old was Abd-al-Rehman when he died?
Answer: He was 73 when he died.