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3. SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING (Patrick Pringle)

3. SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING (Patrick Pringle)

Questions & Answers (Based on Exercise)

Q.No.1: What are antiseptics and what is the antiseptic method?Answer: The method of killing germs is called antispetic method. In this method, the chemicals which are used to kill the germs are called antispetics.

Q.No.2: What was the chief defect of antiseptic method?                  

Answer: Antiseptic method had greater harms than its uses. It not only killed the germs but it also destroyed white blood cells or leucocytes of the body.  That’s why, it was rejected.

Q.No.3: What part is played by the white cells in the blood of a human body?

Answer: The white cells are also called leucocytes. When the germs attack, these white cells attack the germs. In this way, they prevent the germs from increasing in the body.

Q.No.4: Give an account of the early life of Fleming?  

Answer: Fleming was born near Darvel in Ayrshire in 1881. He studied at Darvel and then went to London. At the age of 20, he studied the field of medicines. 

Q.No.5: Describe how Fleming discovered Penicillin?    

Answer: In 1928, Fleming was making experiments on the germs in a culture plate. A mould spore dropped on the plate somewhere. The germs began to disappear at once. Fleming called it penicillin.

Q.No.6: In what respect is penicillin better than the chemical antiseptics?

Answer: Penicillin is better than chemical antiseptics because unlike antiseptics, it strengthens the white cells of the blood against the germs.

Q.No.7, 8: What do you know of the Oxford team? OR How did they make penicillin more effective?  

Answer: The Oxford Team made penicillin more effective. They consolidated it for practical uses. However, they went to America to find new ways for its manufacturing and production.

Q.No.9: Write a note on penicillin as a wonder drug?  OR How did penicillin benefit mankind?            

Answer: Penicillin helped a lot in healing war wounds. In this way, it saved countless lives. It also became a source of encouraging other scientists to discover more and more.

Q.No.10: Was Fleming proud of his discovery?         

Answer: Fleming was not proud of his discovery. Rather, he was a modest and humble person. He always declared: “Nature makes penicillin. I just found it.

Q.No.11: Why couldn’t penicillin have been discovered in the research laboratories of America?      Answer: Penicillin could not be discovered in the laboratories of America because they were air conditioned and dustless. There was no chance for the spore to come.

Q.No.12: Fleming’s achievement paved the way for other discoveries in the medical field. What are they?     

Answer: Fleming’s achievements became a source of encouraging other scientists to discover more and more. They started working on new drugs. In this way, they discovered many antibiotics.

                                MORE IMPORTANT QUESTIONS (PAST PAPERS)

Q. No. 1: Why did Fleming choose St. Mary Medical School for admission? (FB-2009)

Answer: He knew nothing about the medical schools in London. He chose it for admission for the reason because he had played water polo match against the hospital team.

Q.No.2: Why did Fleming fail to concentrate penicillin? (FB-2012)

Answer: Only a chemist could concentrate penicillin while Fleming was a bacteriologist. Moreover, neither he had equipment nor knew any method to concentrate it.

Q.No.3: How did Lister avoid what the surgeons in the past did without knowing? OR How did surgeons infect their patients in the past? (FB-2012)      

Answer: In the past, the surgeons infected the patients with germs during the operation. However, Lister avoided this infection. He sterilized his instruments, his own body and the operation theater with carbolic acid.

Q.No.4: What is lysozyme?  OR How was Lysozyme different from other chemicals? OR How did Fleming discover lysozyme? (FB-08)

Answer: Fleming discovered the natural antiseptic in 1922. He discovered it from his own nasal secretions. He named it lysozyme. It had no harmful effect on the leucocytes.

Q.No.5: How were Fleming’s services to mankind acknowledged? OR When was Fleming knighted and awarded the Noble Prize? OR How was Fleming appreciated? (FB-10, 14, 15)

Answer: For his services to mankind in the form of medicine and discovering penicillin, Fleming was knighted in 1944 and was given the Noble Prize in 1945.