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12. RUBA’IYAT (Allama Muhammad Iqbal)

12. RUBA’IYAT (Allama Muhammad Iqbal)

CONTEXT: In this poem the poet feels sad at the pitiable and miserable condition of the Muslims. He advises the Muslims to have strong faith. In this context, he gives the example of Hazrat Ibrahim who displayed great faith in God. The Muslims have forgotten the true traditions of their forefathers. That’s why, they are worried.

EXPLANATION: LINES 1 TO 4: In these lines the poet stresses the idea of having strong faith in life. He says that the faith we are having is not true faith. He cites the example of Hazrat Ibrahim who plunged into fire without any fear. He says that our faith should be like the faith Hazrat Ibrahim enjoyed. He was completely saturated with the love of Allah. Then the poet says that the Muslims are captivated by the modern world. He warns the Muslims by saying that it is worse to have no faith than slavery.

EXPLANATION: LINES 5 TO 8: In these lines the poet depicts the shocking condition of the Muslims and mentions the grandeur of Islam. The unity of our nation owes to Islam only. But now the Islamic culture has become a mixture of different cultures. But no other culture has a place like Makkah that could bind them in one string. That’s why, their civilization cannot be compared with Makkah because it has no value against the culture of the Muslims.

EXPLANATION: LINES 9 TO 12: In these lines, the poet depicts the miserable plight of the Muslims. Modern civilization has great attraction for them. They have no love for their religion. This negligence has deprived them of spiritual peace. They have lost the spirit which awarded them glory. They have no love for humanity and all their efforts are futile. Their prayers have no value. Every spirit is artificial. Inwardly, they have lost all their spirits.

Short Questions

Q.NO.1: Who has written this poem?

Answer: Allama Muhammad Iqbal has written this poem. He wrote poetry in Urdu as well as Persian. Mysticism was the hallmark of his poetry. He also showed his love for nature.

Q.NO.2: Who was Abraham (AS)? (RWP-11, BWP-11, 12)

Answer: Hazrat Abraham (AS) is the prophet of Allah. He was thrown in the fire by his opponents but he was saved by his faith in God.

Q.NO.3: What is worse than slavery? (FSD-09, GW-09, BWP-09, 10, 12, DG-10, MUL-11, 12, BP-12, AJK-11)

Answer: Faith in God is the power that gives us fixed vistas. That’s why, the poet is of the opinion that to have no faith in God is worse than slavery.

Q.NO.4: Who cannot compete with the culture or civilization of Mecca? (SAR, FSD-10, AJK-11, LHR-12)

Answer: No other nation can compete with the culture or civilization of Mecca because only the Muslims have a center like Mecca which is a symbol of harmony.

Q.NO.5: What has made the efforts of the Muslims fruitless? (AJK-10, SAR-10, DGK, LHR-11, RWP-12)

Answer: The efforts of the Muslims have become fruitless because they have lost true faith. They should have faith like that of Hazrat Abraham (AS).

Q.NO.6: What is the present state of the Muslims? OR What is the present state of the Muslims as given in the last stanza of the poem? OR What should the Muslims do to get their lost glory? (DG-10)

Answer: The present condition of the Muslims is very poor. They have no interest in religion. However, the poet advises them to have a firm belief in Allah and overcome their differences.