5. MUSTAFA KAMAL (W.F. Castle)
Questions & Answers (Based on Exercise)
Q. No. 1: What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the Allies after World War – I? OR What was the attitude of the government of the old liberals and Padishah towards the Allies at the end of First World War-I?
Answer: After the First World War, the old liberals and Turkish government were ready to co-operate with the Allies who were the real rulers not the Sultan.
Q. No. 2: Why was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia? OR Who was selected to crush the revolt against the Allies in Anatolia?
Answer: Riyazim Karabekar’s activities caused uneasiness among the Allies. So, Mustafa Kamal was sent to Anatolia to crush the revolt that was being made against the Allies.
Q. No. 3: What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intention of the Allies to the partition of the Ottoman Empire?
Answer: The Turkish patriots became anxious and were greatly infuriated at the partition of their country. They came forward and raised their voice against it.
Q. No. 4: Write a note on Mustafa Kamal’s activities in Anatolia.
Answer: In Anatolia, his activities were following.
1. He met Ali Faut, and made a plan of resistance.
2. He opened different centers of patriotic revolt.
3. Mustafa Kamal and his companions decided to start guerilla war against the Greeks.
Q. No. 5: Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople?
Answer: King Mehmet had seen through Mustafa Kamal’s intentions. He considered Mustafa Kamal a danger for his interests. That’s why, he ordered Mustafa Kamal to come back.
Q. No. 6: What was Mustafa Kamal’s reply?
Answer: When Mehmet asked Mustafa Kamal to come back, Mustafa Kamal replied that he would stay in Anatolia until the nation had won its freedom.
Q. No. 7: How did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia for himself?
Answer: Mehmet got ready to make a government to please the nationalists. Some patriots also fell a prey to his trap. This was his trick to regain Anatolia.
Q. No. 8: How did Mehmet’s plan fail? OR What did Mustafa Kamal do to prepare people for patriotic revolt?
Answer:Mustafa Kamal urged the patriots to build up a National Assembly. He gathered a large army. The Allies began to retreat. In this way, Mehmet’s plan failed.
Q. No. 9: What were the terms offered to Turkey by the Allies?
Answer: These terms were following.
1. Cecilia would go to the French.
2.There would be a large Greek district around Izmir.
3. All the Arab provinces would become mandated territories.
Q. No. 10: Give an account of the Greeks attack and its defeat.
Answer: The Greeks attacked the Turk patriots on 21st August, 1921. It was a man to man fight. They fought for 14 days. At last, the Greeks became victorious.
Q. No. 11: Give an account to the departure of Mehmet from Istanbul? OR How did Mehmet escape from Istanbul?
Answer: On Mehmet’s request, a British ambulance was sent by the British Embassy. Mehmet was placed in it. In this way, the Sultan was exiled from Turkey.
Q. No. 12: Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa Kamal with reference to (1) the position of women (2) removal of illiteracy (3) change in dress (4) adoption of the roman script and (5) the industrial and economical development۔
Answer: 1. Reforms with Reference to the Position of Women
Mustafa Kamal worked for the rights of the women. He urged them to get higher education. He abolished the veil system. He advised them to work shoulder to shoulder with men.
2. Removal of Illiteracy
Mustafa Kamal visited villages to urge the people to get education. He replaced the Arabic Script by the Roman Script. He made the Turkish language very simple.
3. Change in Dress
Mustafa Kamal made following changes in dress.
1. He abolished the national dress of Turkey i.e. Fez.
2. He made compulsory the wearing of hat.
3. He also forbade women from wearing veils.
4. Adoption of the Roman Script
Mustafa Kamal replaced the Arabic Script by the Roman Script. He also abolished flowery phrases. He also replaced Arabic and Persian words by genuine Turkish words.
5. Industrial and Economic Development
Mustafa Kamal made following industrial and economic reforms.
1. He made plans for the construction and repairing in the field of motor and railway roads. 2. He set up factories and mills. 3. He improved the banking system.
Q. No. 13: Write a note on Mustafa Kamal as a great nation – builder.
Answer: Mustafa Kamal was a great reformer and a nation-builder. He urged the women to get education. He made the Turkish language very simple. He set up mills and factories. He improved the banking system.
MORE IMPORTANT QUESTIONS (PAST PAPERS)
Q.No.1: What was the famous battle call of Mustafa Kamal? (FB-2008)
Answer: The famous battle call was made by Mustafa Kamal in August 1922. The call was: “Soldiers: your goal is the Mediterranean Forward!”
Q.No.2: What was the first declaration by Grand National Assembly of Turkey? (FB-2012) Answer: The first declaration made by the Grand National Assembly was the establishment of an executive council.
Q.No.3: What was the first step taken by Mustafa Kamal to educate his people?(FB-2013)
Answer: He replaced the Arabic Script by the Roman Script. He made the Turkish language very simple. He visited villages to urge the people to get education. He himself trained the teachers.
Q.No.4: Why did Turkish people reject the treaty? (FB-2014)
Answer: The Turkish people were not ready to accept the treaty. They considered it a death sentence for them. That’s why, they rejected this treaty.